5. Movement and Mobility Strategy
5. Movement and Mobility Strategy
Volume 1, Chapter 12 Movement and Mobility, sets out the overarching context for movement and mobility for the County. The Council’s strategic aim is to align transport and land use planning, thereby reducing the demand for travel and promoting the use of public transport, such as walking and cycling which will result in a modal shift away from carbon intensive modes to more sustainable modes and new technologies.
This approach will produce a more efficient land use pattern where suitable land uses are located closer together. Over time, this will reduce costs for everyone and improve the quality of life for residents and visitors by allowing a greater number of day to day activities to be completed with a reduced necessity for travel, or travel by alternative modes other than the car.
5.2 The 10-Minute City Concept
A balanced, compact form, combined with efficient transport links between employment and residential locations, will facilitate easier circulation and mobility within the City. It can bring new life and footfall, contribute to the viability of services, shops and public transport, increase housing supply and enable more people to be closer to employment and recreational opportunities, as well as to walk or cycle more and use the car less. It is about creating connected communities where a range of community facilities and services are accessible in short walking, cycle or public transport timeframes from their homes to destinations that meet their daily needs.
By providing for a compact city form there are substantial economies of scale to be made in terms of the costs of service provision. Since the 2014 Plan, Kilkenny has begun to develop the concept of the ten-minute city which has been supported by the Regional Spatial and Economic Strategy (RSES). Regional Policy Objective (RPO) 176 setting out an objective to “attain sustainable compact settlements with the 10-Minute City/Town concept”. Historically Kilkenny city has been planned in a compact form with the concept of the four neighbourhoods based around the medieval city core.
The focus of the 10-Minute City Concept will be applied to accessibility to/from Kilkenny City Centre for walking, cycling and public transport access, and also accessibility for the suburban neighbourhoods and community facilities. This is in line with one of the key National Strategic Outcomes of the NPF; Compact Growth.
Kilkenny City is a designated ‘Key Town’ in the Regional Spatial and Economic Strategy (RSES) for the Southern Region and the second largest settlement in the South-East Region.
An objective of the RSES that a Local Transport Plan (LTP) will be prepared for all the Key Towns. The LTPs will include priorities for each settlement in terms of public transport infrastructure and services, cycle investment, improvements to the pedestrian environment and road enhancements.
5.3 The Local Transport Plan
As part of the preparation of the City & County Development Plan, Kilkenny County Council has commissioned the preparation of a Local Transport Plan (KLTP). The KLTP is envisaged to be a short to medium term plan to cover the period 2020-2026 and beyond to support the development of a comprehensive, sustainable transport network for the City.
The KLTP will be based on the following over-arching objectives:
- Support the future growth of Kilkenny City through the provision of an integrated, safe, reliable and sustainable transport network;
- The integration of land use and transport planning,
- Support the realisation of the 10-minute city,
- Improved safety, accessibility and permeability throughout the Study Area for pedestrians, cyclists and public transport users,
- Actively discourage vehicular through-traffic,
- Reduce dependency on the private car,
- Increase public transport capacity and provision to maximise catchment,
- Enhance the public realm through traffic management and transport interventions; and
- Limit the impact of Kilkenny’s transport network on the environment.
The KLTP transport network options will be developed in line with the Design Manual for Urban Roads and Streets (DMURS), principles and user hierarchy.
The KLTP will also include:
- A review of existing priorities and develop scenarios for modelling
- Transport model development
- Assessment of existing trends/issues/constraints,
- Development of a range of mobility and movement interventions to support growth of the City
- Review of parking standards
- An enhanced cycle network plan
- A walking network plan
- Climate action, carbon and EV charging (See Volume Section 12.14 Electric Vehicles)
C5A To prepare a comprehensive Local Transport Plan for Kilkenny City in accordance with the Area Based Transport Assessment Guidelines (TII, 2018) within the concept of a 10-minute City addressing:
o Public transport
o Motorised transport
o Carparking strategy/Car parking demand management
C5B To implement the recommendations of the Local Transport Plan for Kilkenny city once adopted.
5.4 Integration of Land Use Planning and Transport
The integration of land use and transportation is a fundamental principle of the National Planning Framework and the Southern Regional Spatial and Economic Strategy. The aim is to reduce the overall demand for transport by promoting a more efficient land use pattern where suitable land uses are located closer together.
See Volume 1 Section 12.3 Integration of Land Use Planning and Transport
The mainstay of this plan is the principle of the further development of Kilkenny as a 10-Minute City, which will be elaborated upon in this chapter.
5.4.1 The 10- Minute City Concept
Of the ten key National Strategic Outcomes of the National Planning Framework there are three that are particularly relevant to the 10-minute city concept. These are:
- Compact growth - managing growth to create attractive well-connected places
- Sustainable mobility – through transition to sustainable travel modes and
- Enhanced amenities and heritage – creating attractive cities and towns
At a regional level the RSES implements these key National Strategic Outcomes with its own Strategy Statements. It goes further with RPO 176 stating that:
“It is an objective to attain sustainable compact settlements with the “10-minute” city and town concepts, whereby, a range of community facilities and services are accessible in short walking and cycle timeframes from homes”.
Kilkenny County Council and the former Borough Council had recognised the compact nature of the City and introduced the concept of the 10-minute city in the 2014 -2020 City Plan. The concept of the 10-minute city is that residents of the city can access the local services they require such as shops, schools, or local parks within a 10-minute cycle or walk from their homes. In simple terms, Kilkenny is approximately 3km wide and 4.5km long. Few journeys undertaken within the city should be more than 2.5 km in length; and assuming an average cycle speed of 15 km per hour, that equates to approximately 10 minutes.
Historically, since the 1970’s, Kilkenny city has been planned in a compact form with the concept of the neighbourhood model based around the central core. This model has been adapted to adjust to circumstances and continues in this current Plan.
The Mobility Land use objectives and Development Management Requirements from Volume 1 are repeated here for convenience with an additional objective 12Aa solely for the City (see Section 12.3.2 Volume 1).
5.4.2 Land Use Objectives
C5C To map and identify infrastructural requirements to support the ’10-minute’ city concept within the City.
C5D To promote compact urban forms close to public transport corridors to encourage more sustainable patterns of movement.
C5E To undertake appropriate traffic management measures within the City to reduce congestion and minimise travel times.
The Council will continue to plan for a sustainable, integrated and low carbon transport system by enhancing the transport infrastructure in terms of public transport, cycling and pedestrian facilities and connecting the different modes as the opportunity arises.
Development Management Requirements:
- All non-residential development proposals will be subject to maximum parking standards as a limitation to restrict parking provision to achieve greater modal shift;
- In locations where the highest intensity of development occurs, an approach that is based on performance criteria in relation to car parking that seeks to achieve well-designed high-quality outcomes in order to achieve targeted growth will be applied.
- Infrastructure for Electric Vehicles will be integrated into developments;
- The design of all roads and streets within the urban areas within the 60 kph zone shall be as per the Design Manual for Urban Roads and Streets (DMURS), being the designated appropriate road design standards for such locations.
Applications are to achieve a more place-based and integrated approach to road and street design in accordance with the four core principles promoted within the DMURS:
- Connected Networks: Support the creation of integrated street networks which promote higher levels of permeability and legibility for all users, and with emphasis on more sustainable forms of transport;
- Multi-Functional Streets: Promote multi-functional, place-based streets that balance the needs of all users within a self-regulating environment;
- Pedestrian Focus: Quality of the street is measured by the quality of the environment user hierarchy with pedestrian considered first; and
- Multi-Disciplinary Approach: Greater communication and co-operation between design professionals through the promotion of a plan-led, multidisciplinary approach to design.
5.5 Modal share targets for Kilkenny City
The 2016 Census showed that households in the City Centre area have overall low levels of car ownership, with 40-50% of households not owning a car. Car ownership levels increase progressively moving out from the City Centre, with more than 90% of households on the outskirts of the City having at least one car available.
Car ownership is a key determinant of travel behaviour, inextricably linked to the availability of public transport and parking provision.
Figure MS2 below presents the mode share breakdown for commuting trips to work, school and college combined for the CSO defined Small Areas within Kilkenny Urban and Rural Electoral Divisions. It shows a dominant car mode share of 63.5%, which includes trips by car as driver and passenger. The second most used mode is walking which represents 23.3% of trips to work, school, or college throughout a 24-hour period. Public transport accounts for a small part of the total with 4%, however it is important to note that the new city bus services began operation in December 2019, after this data was collated.
This Plan will set Modal share targets for Kilkenny City for the first time, based on an analysis of trends and current Government policy. The mode share targets, as set out in Table 4.1, are focused on internal trips, i.e. trips that have both an origin and destination within the City and Environs. In terms of sustainable modes, a 60% mode share target is set for the City and Environs for 2040, which is an approximate increase of 23% compared to the 2020 mode share. The development of multi-modal options has been based on these mode share targets.
Table 4.1: Modal Share targets for Kilkenny City
2020 Internal Trips
5.5.1 Modal Share Objectives
C5F Implement strategies to meet the modal share targets
C5G To achieve a modal shift from the private car to walking or cycling in accordance with the targets in Table 4.1 for Kilkenny City. This target will be subject to any refinements which may arise through the Local Transport Plan for Kilkenny City.
5.6 Cycling and Walking
In line with national and regional policy, this Plan promotes cycling and walking as efficient, fast and relatively inexpensive forms of transport. Policies for achieving Compact Growth in Kilkenny city will re- focus the design of residential development so as to create an urban form which is more conducive to the provision of infrastructure for walking, cycling and public transport. The improved provision of alternatives to the private car should bring about a reduction in demand for private car journeys and a commensurate increase walking, cycling and public transport. Providing public transport and a network of safe, well-lit and convenient footpaths and cycleways within residential areas with links to schools, local neighbourhood centres, public transport stops and workplaces will encourage walking and cycling.
National guidance and policy are set out in Volume 1 Section 12.5.
See Volume 1 Section 12.5 Cycling and Walking
5.6.1 Cycling within the City
Figure MS7 sets out the various cycling routes completed to date within the City.
For cycling purposes, the City falls into two spatial categories for cycling; the City Centre and the Suburban areas.
The City Centre is marked by ‘Gateways’ within which a 30kph speed restriction applies (See Figure MS3). These Gateways define the entry points into the city centre street and laneway network. Within this area there is traffic calming such as raised pedestrian crossings, road narrowings and ‘special’ surfacing – shared vehicle and cycle space with dedicated pedestrian footways.
Suburban areas are defined by the Ring Road and 50kph speed restriction. Within this there are separated vehicle and cycle space (i.e. cycle lanes or cycle tracks as appropriate) with dedicated pedestrian footways (or occasionally shared footway/cycleway).
Within the retail core and city centre, pedestrian and cyclist movements shall take precedence over vehicular traffic.
As described above, the Gateways demarcate the city centre within which pedestrians and cyclists should have priority. Gateways are defined by a variety of urban design and traffic management schemes.
Key to the delivery of a successful cycle network is the provision of supporting infrastructure. Secure bike parking facilities have been provided at central destinations such as The Parade, John’s Green, Bateman Quay, Kieran Street and High Street. Bicycle parking will continue to be required as part of any relevant development proposal. (See Section 12.5.1 Volume 1 for bike parking standards.)
5.6.2 Impact of Covid-19
A number of initiatives have been introduced as a response to the impact of Covid-19 on the City Centre. One of these has been the introduction of a one-way traffic system for Rose Inn Street, High Street & Bateman Quay with additional road space being allocated to pedestrian movement along Rose Inn Street and High Street.
This was introduced on an experimental basis from a recommendation of the Kilkenny City Task Force. The operation of the one-way system will be reviewed and monitored to assess whether such a system would be appropriate in the transport strategy for the City over the longer term.
5.6.3 Cycling Objectives
C5H To further improve and enhance the network of cycling and pedestrian routes in accordance with the recommendations of the Kilkenny Local Area Transport Plan as resources permit.
C5I To develop a cycle route between the Eastern Environs and the Breagagh Valley.
C5J To investigate the provision of appropriate cycling facilities along the River Nore Linear Park connecting the north of the City with the east and south.
C5K To reduce the Council’s carbon footprint through the implementation of the Council’s own cycle scheme, which will encourage staff members to discharge their official duties in a more sustainable way.
C5L To invest in cycling and other Smarter Travel projects in support of the compact ’10-minute city’ concept
C5M To monitor and assess the one-way traffic system introduced to Rose Inn Street, High Street and Bateman Quay to determine its suitability for the overall transport strategy for the City.
In general terms, new and upgraded main pedestrian links should be provided based on the following principles:
- Connected: Linking the places where people want to go.
- Convenient: Direct routes should follow desire lines, with easy to use crossings.
- Comfortable: Good quality footways with adequate widths and free of obstructions.
- Convivial: Attractive, well lit, and safe, with a variety of landscaping and views along the route.
- Conspicuous: Easy to follow routes with helpful signage.
22.214.171.124 Pedestrian Priority
A key element of the Mobility Management Plan is the prioritisation of pedestrians and cyclists over vehicular traffic, within the gateways. This priority could take a variety of forms, including pedestrianisation and the concept of shared space. In some cases, the narrow street pattern of the medieval core does not allow for segregation, and in these instances, shared spaces are prioritised.
126.96.36.199 Proposed River crossings
The Lady Desart Bridge now connects Bateman Quay to John’s Quay. The pedestrian bridge under Ossory Bridge now connects the Boardwalk on the north side of the river to the Linear Park on the south. Three new linkages are proposed over the River Nore, connecting the existing pedestrian and cycle links, see Figure MS3.
The provision of a pedestrian bridge in the vicinity of Talbotsinch would connect the River Nore Linear Park to the Bleach Road and the northeastern area of the City and the proposed biodiversity park at Dunmore (see Volume 1 Section 188.8.131.52). The provision of a boardwalk along Greensbridge, will connect the southern Nore Linear Park, to the northern element, through the Abbey Quarter Riverside Linear Park. Finally, the provision of an additional crossing located between John’s Bridge and Ossory Bridge would connect St. Canice’s campus to the River Nore Linear Park.
Various initiatives can contribute to an increase in walking and cycling. An example of this is the Walking bus, which consists of adults walking groups of pupils to and from school along set routes, with children joining the walking bus at various pick-up points along the route. This programme encourages children to walk, and so get used to this means of travel.
Kilkenny City contains a network of back lanes connecting residential areas to the city centre. The Council proposes to avail of opportunities to undertake improvements of these lanes through surface treatments, lighting and reducing the use by vehicular traffic. Such works will facilitate greater use of these lanes by pedestrians and cyclists enlivening these lanes and encouraging economic activity opportunities.
5.6.6 Walking and Cycling Objectives
C5N Complete the demarcation of the Gateways and prioritise pedestrian and cyclist movement within the Gateways.
C5O To progress plans for the provision of a pedestrian bridge at Talbotsinch, including the provision of access along the eastern bank of the river up from Greensbridge, to the proposed bio-diversity park at Dunmore as part of the River Nore Linear Park.
C5P Construct a Boardwalk at Greensbridge to link the River Nore Riverside Walk with the new Riverside Linear Park in the Abbey Quarter and onwards to the Canal Walk.
C5Q To progress plans for the provision of an additional pedestrian bridge between Ossory Bridge and John’s Bridge to connect St. Canice’s campus to the Canal Walk.
Development Management Requirements for Cycling and Walking
- Section 12.5.1 of Volume 1 sets out the detailed requirements for cycling and walking that planning applications must address as part of any planning application.
5.7 Public Transport
The development of public transport is critical in achieving more sustainable travel patterns and a reduced reliance on the car. The building out of public transport infrastructure is essential for reducing carbon emissions generally and it is expected that with a denser urban structure resulting from a more compact growth strategy, the use of public transport will become more economically viable, more prevalent and more desirable.
5.7.1 Bus Services
There are four forms of bus services that operate in the City. These are as follows:
- Kilkenny City Bus Network
- Hinterland & Inter city services
- Coach tours
- School bus services
184.108.40.206 Kilkenny City Bus Network
In conjunction with the National Transport Authority, a Local Bus Service for Kilkenny City was launched at the end of 2019. The Kilkenny City Bus Services was referenced by the NDP as an urban centre that would benefit from capital investment in bus services and infrastructure. The service consists of two routes, KK1 and KK2, operated by City Direct and funded by the National Transport Authority (NTA). The two routes combined serve 33 stops, feeding into a central spine crossing St. John’s Bridge to the City Centre, sharing stops at Parliament Street, Market Yard and John Street Upper. Bus shelters are proposed to be rolled out along the two routes.
Both routes have circuitous alignments, designed to broaden their catchment areas including areas of high population density and low car ownership.
220.127.116.11 Hinterland and Inter-city Services
The City is presently served by a number of bus connections to various towns within the county and by a number of inter-city services. In the main, these services set down and pick up passengers at the bus stop on Ormonde Road and at MacDonagh Junction. Bus Éireann and Dublin Coach operate services from MacDonagh junction and Railway station and at the bus stop on Ormonde Road.
As there is no formal transport hub in Kilkenny, most regional services stop at Ormond Road, the Parade/ Kilkenny Castle or MacDonagh Junction.
18.104.22.168 Coach tours
Coach tour buses are generally facilitated at the larger hotels or near Kilkenny Castle, on the Castle Road. A dedicated bus set down area was provided here during the period of the last Plan. The area of Irishtown and St. Canice’s would benefit from additional coach facilities. The Abbey Quarter Partnership is proposing a temporary parking facility for Coach parking as a temporary use on one of the plots within the Abbey Quarter.
22.214.171.124 School services
School services are generally well served in the city, either adjacent to individual schools or in bus bays such as the facility on Gaol Road. These services provide a vital social need and should be accommodated for the convenience and safety of students.
The Council will facilitate the provision of bus shelters as appropriate as well as facilititate parking provision for tourist buses where feasible in the city as the need arises and as resources permit.
Kilkenny City is connected to the Dublin to Waterford main passenger rail line via a spur from Kilkenny City to Lavistown just east of the City. MacDonagh Railway station, which is an Age-Friendly station, provides a hub for rail and bus services (See objective Z6: MacDonagh Railway Station).
The RSES has the objective to strengthen rail connectivity, which includes increased frequency of services and reduced journey times between Waterford, Kilkenny City, Carlow and Dublin. The Council supports increased frequency of services and reduced journey times between Kilkenny City and other destinations on the Waterford/Dublin line thereby enhancing the economic corridor between Waterford Metropolitan Area and the Key towns of Kilkenny and Carlow.
Taxis and hackney services are an integral part of the City’s transport network. It is critical that the City is facilitated with adequate taxi services that are readily available at peak demand periods and provide a demand-responsive 24 hour door to- door service. The Council will continue to support improvements in taxi and hackney services in the City and will seek to ensure that all public transport services complement each other through the development of effective interchange opportunities.
5.8 Road Network
5.8.1 Kilkenny City Network
A road and street hierarchy is essential in order to classify the function, shape and use of all roads and streets in the city. The Kilkenny City Centre Local Area Plan (2005) established a road and street hierarchy for the city centre which defines the function, shape and use of all roads, streets, lanes and slips. This hierarchy will form the basis for determining appropriate forms of traffic management.
The classification is based on criteria such as the available road and footpath space, the desirable and necessary volume of traffic, the potential pedestrian and cycle volumes, the surrounding environment and urban form and the destination of traffic on the route. In broad terms the classification in Kilkenny City can be described as follows:
Table 5.2: Classification of Streets within Kilkenny City
Key routes generally providing both vehicular and pedestrian access to the City Centre or providing linkages around the City Centre
Routes providing access to main car parks and main delivery routes and also carrying high pedestrian volumes
Predominantly providing local access for vehicles and potentially carrying relatively high pedestrian volumes
Links with high levels of pedestrian activity that are not serving as key vehicular routes
Limited vehicular access routes serving as secondary pedestrian routes
Pedestrian only routes usually characterised by stepped formation
The Kilkenny Ring Road is a key part of Kilkenny’s road network, comprising the N76, N10 and N77. This orbital route bounds most of the built up area, stretching from the south-west at Callan Road to the north at Castlecomer Road, as follows:
- N76: Callan Road Roundabout to Waterford Road Roundabout;
- N10: Waterford Road Roundabout to Hebron Road Roundabout including the Ossory bridge crossing over the River Nore; and
- N77: Hebron Road Roundabout to Castlecomer Road Roundabout.
There are ten roundabouts along the route connecting to radial routes such as R697, R910, R700, and R712 and a number of local roads providing access to residential areas and the Loughboy IDA Business and Technology Park. Connectivity across the Ring Road to employment areas such as Loughboy and Purcellsinch requires improvement to align with the concept of the 10-minute City. This will be addressed in conjunction with the TII.
Four road bridges provide connectivity between eastern and western banks of the River Nore, as follows (from south to north):
- Ossory Road Bridge: (N10) Part of the Kilkenny Ring Road;
- St. John’s Bridge
- St. Francis Bridge: Footpaths and cycle lanes on both sides; and
- Green’s Bridge: Narrow footpath on one side.
Since the last Development Plan, the following roads projects have been completed in and around the City:
- Completion of the N76 Callan Road Realignment Scheme.
- Completion of phase 1 of the Kilkenny Central Access Scheme incorporating St. Francis Bridge
- Completion of R697 Kells Road Improvement Scheme.
- In the Breagagh Valley, construction of the link road between the Callan Rd and the Circular road is underway.
5.8.3 Road Proposals
126.96.36.199 The Central Access Scheme
Phase 1 of the Central Access Scheme was completed in 2016, comprising the construction of St. Francis Bridge, a single-carriageway road providing east-west connectivity over the River Nore. It also links the Abbey Quarter to the former Mart Site on the Castlecomer Road. Subsequent phases of the CAS will link the City Centre with the Breagagh Valley/ Loughmacask neighbourhoods.
As part of the Loughmacask masterplan process, the line of the Central Access scheme within the masterplan area is under review. The Loughmacask masterplan is currently in progress and a draft plan will be published before the end of 2020. (See Section 2.2.4 Loughmacask.)
188.8.131.52 Breagagh Valley Phase 1 Infrastructure scheme
The Breagagh Valley Phase 1 Road scheme will service the emerging Breagagh Valley neighbourhood to the west of the city. This road is under construction from the Callan Road to the Kilmanagh Road and includes an upgrading of the Kilmanagh Road for approximately 800 metres west of the City. This will be completed in 2021.
184.108.40.206 Western Bypass
The Western Bypass would complete the Ring Road of Kilkenny city, from the existing roundabout at the Castlecomer Road (N78) to the Callan Road (N76) and connect onwards to the Waterford Road roundabout. The length of this proposed road is approximately 7km and a line has been reserved for the future delivery of same. See Figure CS5 Zoning.
Phase 1 of the Western Bypass, the Kilkenny Northern Ring Road Extension, will connect the Castlecomer Road at Junction 10 to the R693 Freshford Road, approximately 2.5km north of Kilkenny City Centre, see Figure CS5 Zoning. The length of the proposed scheme is approximately 1.5km. The project will include for the provision of a bridge crossing over the River Nore and pedestrian and cyclist facilities will be incorporated along the City side of the scheme.
5.8.4 Access to National Roads
The national road network caters for the efficient and safe movement of long-distance traffic. The network also provides strategic links for the towns within the county and within the South-East region. In order to protect the investment in these roads and to maintain their primary function, it will be necessary to restrict access and junctions to the network in accordance with Spatial Planning and National Roads - Guidelines for Planning Authorities.
5.8.5 National Road Objectives
C5R To develop and agree an appropriately planned policy response to access the N10 roundabout at Blanchfieldslands near Hebron House in Kilkenny City.
C5S To develop a link road from the roundabout at Blanchfields lands on the N10/motorway access roundabout to the old Dublin road (R712) in conjunction with TII.
C5T To investigate the provision of additional cycle and pedestrian crossing facilities to connect across the Ring Road, in conjunction with TII.
5.8.6 Road Objectives
C5U To Implement to the following Roads Objectives:(See Figure MS6 Road Objectives)
R1: Reserve the proposed line of the western by‐pass for the city from the Castlecomer Road to the Waterford Road free from development, including for a river crossing and seek approval from An Bord Pleanála for Phase 1 of the Western By‐pass, the Kilkenny Northern Ring Road Extension.
R2: Complete the Outrath Road Improvement Scheme and link the Bohernatounish Road to the Outrath Road.
R3: To provide for a link road through development lands linking the Outrath Road through to the existing Smithlands business park and onto the Waterford Road.
R4: Reserve the proposed line of a new road link from the Callan Road to the Waterford Road roundabout free from development.
R5: Reserve the line of Phase 2 of the Central Access Scheme from the Waterbarrack roundabout to the roundabout on the Kilcreene Road.
R6: Provide for a road connection from the Freshford Road to the site reserved for a proposed secondary school within the Loughmacask masterplan area.
R7: To progress the route selection, planning and development of a road connecting the R695 Kilmanagh Road to the R693 Freshford Road.
R8: To progress the planning and development of a route connection from the existing roundabout on the N10 to the R712 (old Dublin Road) and to reserve such route free from development.
R9: To progress the planning and development of a route connection from the Hebron Business park to the N10 and the R712 via R8 and to reserve this route free from development.
R10: To provide a second entrance to the Hebron Business Park from the Hebron Road.
R11: To implement the traffic strategy and road cross sections for the Hebron area in accordance with the Hebron Road Urban Design Strategy.
The Council will continue to maintain, develop and improve existing roads and to construct new roads as needs arise and resources permit in accordance with the Annual Roadworks programme.
5.9 Car parking
5.9.1Kilkenny Parking Options Study
Kilkenny is served by approximately 4,500 parking spaces, on-street and off-street, public and private. Most of these spaces are located in proximity to the commercial and retail core, drawing vehicular traffic into these areas such as The Parade and High St. At present, there are no Park and Ride facilities in the City. A Parking Options Study was carried out in 2017. The purpose of this Study was to assess the parking requirement to serve the Abbey Quarter development and the City Centre more generally, including the Medieval Mile and to identify potential options for the provision of car and bus/coach parking facilities for the future.
The Study stated that 600 spaces of the estimated 1,812 required over the life of the Abbey Quarter development, can be accommodated for within existing carparks that have spare capacity. A number of options were put forward for consideration but no final decision was made as to the preferred options.
As part of the Kilkenny Local Transport Plan parking demand and the provision of car parking will be addressed. (See Section 5.1 Introduction above.)
Car Parking Development Management Standard
Section 12.12 Car Parking of Volume 1 covers in detail the parking requirements for various types of developments. It should be noted that car parking standards as described within Table 12.3 are considered to be maximum standards and not minimum standards within this Plan.
These standards will be applied to the Kilkenny City area as well as to the rest of the County.
While the provision of sufficient car parking is important, the rationale for the application of car parking standards is to ensure that consideration is given to the accommodation of vehicles in assessing development proposals. The Council will also take into account the need to promote a shift towards more sustainable forms of transport and that rigid standards for car parking may not be applicable in all circumstances in the City. The Council will look at performance-based criteria appropriate to the specific circumstances.
The car parking standards will be reviewed as part of the Local Transport Plan for the City (See section 5.3 Local Transport Plan).
 Government of Ireland, National Planning Framework, page 14
 Southern Assembly Regional Spatial and Economic Strategy RPO 11 page 46
 Southern Regional Assembly Regional spatial and Economic Strategy p 24
 Spatial Planning and National Roads Guidelines for Planning Authorities, 2012
 RoadPlan Consulting, Parking Options Assessment for Abbey Creative Quarter Kilkenny, 2017